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Die Geschichte der Hunnen erstreckt sich von der Zeit vor ihrem ersten sicheren Auftreten in Europa um n. Chr. Bis nach dem Zerfall ihres Reiches um Hyun Jin Kim: The Huns. Routledge, New York (aktuelles, in einzelnen Schlussfolgerungen zur Herkunft und Rolle der Hunnen aber nicht. The Huns includes an Afterword by Peter Heather, Lecturer in Early Medieval History at University College London, which sets Professor Thompson's book in the. This volume is a concise introduction to the history and culture of the Huns. This ancient people had a famous reputation in Eurasian Late Antiquity. However. [ ] Attila, king of the Huns (called Etzel in the song), and following the river moves to the land of the Huns.
[ ] Attila, king of the Huns (called Etzel in the song), and following the river moves to the land of the Huns. If one looks more closely at the Danube journey, which is described four times (the suitor travelling from the land of the Huns to Worms, Kriemhild going with her. Übersetzung im Kontext von „the Huns,“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: the huns.
They had amassed an enormous army made up of cavalry and infantry troops from various backgrounds. King Rugila died in and was succeeded by his two nephews—brothers Attila and Bleda.
Attila was described as a short man with a large head and thin beard who knew both Latin and Goth and was a master negotiator.
Shortly after starting his reign, he negotiated a peace treaty with the Eastern Roman Empire in which the Romans paid him gold in exchange for peace.
But eventually the Romans reneged on the deal and in , Attila and his army stormed their way through the Balkans and the Danubian frontier.
Unable to break through the walls of the city, Attila formed another peace agreement: he would leave Constantinople alone in exchange for an annual tribute of 2, pounds of gold, a staggering sum.
In , Attila murdered Bleda—supposedly to prevent Bleda from murdering him first—and became sole ruler of the Huns. He then launched another campaign against the Eastern Roman Empire and thundered his way through the Balkans.
Attila invaded Gaul, which included modern-day France, northern Italy and western Germany, in But the Romans had wised up and allied with the Visigoths and other barbarian tribes to finally stop the Huns in their tracks.
According to legend, the night before the battle Attila consulted sacrificed bones and saw that thousands of his army would fall in the fight.
The next day, his premonition came true. The foes met on the battlefield in the Catalaunian Plains of eastern France.
The Romans and Visigoths had learned much from previous encounters with the Huns and fought them hand-to-hand and on horseback.
After hours of ferocious fighting that lasted well into the dark of night, tens of thousands of soldiers were dead, and the Roman alliance had forced the Hun army to retreat.
Attila and his army returned to Italy and continued ravaging cities. Paul and St. Whether because of his fear of the Pope and his saintly allies, or simply because his troops were stretched too thin and weakened by malaria, Attila decided to pull out of Italy and return to the Great Hungarian Plain.
When Marcian, the new emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, refused to pay Attila a previously-agreed-to annual tribute in , Attila regrouped and planned to attack Constantinople.
But before he could strike, he was found dead—on his wedding night after marrying his latest bride—by choking on his own blood while in a drunken stupor.
Attila had made his oldest son Ellac his successor, but all his sons fought a civil war for power until the Hun Empire was divided between them.
Without Attila at the helm, however, the weakened Huns fell apart and were no longer a major threat. Attila the Hun. Barbarians-The Huns.
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Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. The Han Dynasty ruled China from B. Though tainted by deadly dramas within the royal court, it is also known for its promotion of Confucianism as the state religion and opening the Silk Road trade route to Europe, The Ming Dynasty ruled China from to A.
Known for its trade expansion to the outside world that established cultural ties with the West, the Ming Dynasty is also remembered for its drama, literature and world-renowned The Qin Dynasty established the first empire in China, starting with efforts in B.
The empire existed only briefly from to B. The Tang Dynasty is considered a golden age of Chinese arts and culture. In power from to A.
Beginning of the It is a matter of life and death, a road either to safety or to ruin. Hence it is a subject of inquiry which can on no account be neglected.
The Shang Dynasty is the earliest ruling dynasty of China to be established in recorded history, though other dynasties predated it. The Shang ruled from to B.
They were known for their advances in math, astronomy, artwork and Of Sun Wu himself Tzu is an honorific particle, meaning "master" , little is known beyond his birth in the state of Ch'i and service to King Attila the Hun was the leader of the Hunnic Empire from to A.
Otto Maenchen-Helfen and E. Thompson argue that the Huns appear to have already been in possession of large parts of Pannonia the Hungarian plain as early as However, the Huns, rather than return to their own country, began to ride to Gaul : Bauto was forced to bribe them to turn back.
Pacatus Drepanius reports that the Huns then fought with Theodosius against the usurper Magnus Maximus in In the Huns began their first large-scale attacks on the Romans.
In the summer of that year, the Huns crossed over the Caucasus Mountains , while in the winter of , another Hunnic invasion force crossed the frozen Danube, pillaged Thrace, and threatened Dalmatia.
One group crossed the Euphrates and was defeated by a Roman army, while two armies, recorded in later sources as under the leadership of Basich and Kursich, rode down the Euphrates and threatened the Persian capital of Ctesiphon.
One of these armies was defeated by the Persians, while the other successfully retreated by Derbend Pass. Sinor argues that the much larger scale of the attacks on Asia Minor and Persia indicates that the bulk of the Huns had remained on the Pontic steppes rather than moving into Europe at this time.
Priscus, writing much later, reports hearing from the Huns at Attila's camp that the raid was launched due to a famine on the steppes.
Hunnic attacks against Armenia would continue after this raid, with Armenian sources noting a Hunnic tribe known as the Xailandur as the perpetrators.
Uldin , the first Hun identified by name in contemporary sources,  is identified as the leader of the Huns in Muntenia modern Romania east of the Olt River in In , Gainas , rebellious former Roman magister militum fled into Uldin's territory with an army of Goths, and Uldin defeated and killed him, likely near Novae : he sent Gainas's head to Constantinople.
Also in , a group of Goths under Radagaisus invaded Italy, with Kim arguing that these Goths originated from Uldin's territory and that they were likely fleeing from some action of his.
Also in , the Huns, under Uldin's command, crossed the Danube and captured the important fortress Castra Martis in Moesia. Hunnic mercenaries had also formed Stilicho's bodyguard:  Kim suggests they were a gift from Uldin.
During this same time, probably between and , the future Roman magister militum and opponent of Attila Flavius Aetius was a hostage living among the Huns.
Sources on the Huns after Uldin are scarce. Olympiodorus wrote an account of this event, which exists now only fragmentarily.
Olympiodorus had been dispatched to appease Charaton after the death of a certain Donatus, who "was unlawfully put to death".
Thompson have assumed that Donatus was a king of the Huns. Maenchen-Helfen and Sinor, however, believe it more likely that Charaton was located in Pannonia.
The Huns again raided in , apparently under the command of a leader named Ruga. The campaign ended with reconciliation, and the Huns received gold and returned to their lands.
It is unclear when Ruga and his brother Octar became the supreme rulers of the Huns: Ruga appears to have ruled the land East of the Carpathians while Octar ruled the territory to the north and west of the Carpathians.
In , Ruga aided Aetius, who had fallen into disfavor, in reobtaining his old office of magister militum : Ruga either sent or threatened to send an army into Italy.
After Ruga's death, his nephews Attila and Bleda became the rulers of the Huns: Bleda appears to have ruled in the eastern portion of the empire, while Attila ruled the west.
Ruga appears to have made a commitment to aid Aetius in Gaul before his death, and Attila and Bleda kept this commitment.
In , the Huns attacked the Romans during one of the annual trading fairs stipulated by the Treaty of Margus: the Huns justified this action by alleging that the bishop of Margus had crossed into Hunnic territory and plundered the Hunnic royal tombs and that the Romans themselves had breached the treaty by sheltering refugees from the Hunnic empire.
In , tensions rose between the Huns and the Western Empire, and the Romans made preparations for war;  however, the tensions appear to have resolved the following year through the diplomacy of Cassiodorus.
Bleda died some time between and , with the most likely years being or He subsequently appealed to Attila for help against the other rebellious leaders.
Maenchen-Helfen argues that the Huns likely fought a war against the Longobards , living in modern Moravia , in , in which the Longobards successfully resisted Hunnic domination.
Some time after Bleda's death, while the Huns were busy with internal affairs, the Theodosius had ceased paying the stipulated tribute to the Huns.
While the Constantinoplitans were able to rebuild the walls before Attila's army was able to approach, the Romans suffered another major defeat on the Gallipoli peninsula.
In , Attila negotiated a new treaty with the Romans and agreed to withdraw from Roman lands; Heather believes that this was in order for him to plan an invasion of the Western Roman Empire.
In spring of , Attila invaded Gaul. In the standard scholarly view of the battle, despite the death of Theodoric, Attila's army was defeated and forced to retreat from Gaul.
Upon his return to Pannonia, Attila ordered the launching of raids into Illyricum to encourage the Eastern Roman Empire to resume its tribute.
The precise reasons for this are unclear: the Chronicle of claims that it was due to his anger at his defeat in Gaul the previous year.
However, Heather argues that it was a combination of disease and an attack by Eastern Roman troops on the Hunnic homeland in Pannonia that led to the Huns' withdrawal.
In , Attila was reportedly planning a major campaign against the Eastern Romans to force them to resume paying tribute. According to Jordanes, Attila's death precipitated a power struggle between his sons — it is unknown how many there were in total, but ancient sources mention three by name: Ellac , Dengizich and Ernak.
The Huns under Ellac then fought the Gepids and were defeated, resulting in Ellac's death. The Huns continued to exist under Attila's sons Dengizich and Ernak.
The Romans refused, however. Kim argues that the war after the death of Attila was actually a rebellion of the western half of the Hunnic empire, led by Ardaric, against the eastern half, led by Ellac as leader of the Akatziri Huns.
The Scirii also emerged from Attila's empire with a potentially Hunnic King: Edeko is first encountered in sources as Attila's envoy, and is variously identified as having a Hunnic or Thuringian mother.
The Goths led by the Amali dynasty under their king Valamir also became independent some time after This did not include all Goths, however, some of whom are recorded as continuing to fight with the Huns as late as Therefore, despite the collapse of the Western Hunnic Empire, Kim argues that the most important Barbarian leaders in Europe after Attila were all themselves Huns or were closely associated with Attila's empire.