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Hannes Wader performing in Augsburg in Bielefeld , Westphalia. Mercury , Pläne. It was also proposed that they be granted parcels of land in her IMajesty's forests and chases in order to convert them to tillage.
A project for settling some of them in Staf- fordshire and Gloucestershire, proposed by Lord Chamberlain, was also considered.
It was suggested to employ'- some of them in the mines of Wales. Still the allowance of the government was in- sufB.
In St. Used in Pennsylvania prior to Catholics Sent Back. This resulted in a great uprising in the Palatinate and the adjoining regions, so that the people hastened to England in great numbers, hoping to find there long desired happiness and abundance of food, and in a short time many thousands reached English soil, so that in May, persons had arrived.
It had been the intention to provide for all of these in the Province of Kent, negotiations had been begun to purchase the large forest and zoological garden at Coloham, belonging to Sir Joseph Williamson, and which had been offered for sale, but he declined to sed it although offered its full value according to the estimates of the day.
IMeanwhile the poor people lay there and more were almost daily added to their number. Germany was notified that no more could be re- ceived, and several hundred Catholics were sent back with alms, because they could not be allowed to remain under the laws of the realm.
For the remainder huts were built and a number of dwelling places in Hampshire allotted them to live in.
Hence the dislike and distrust with which the majority of the lower ranks among the English regarded these people.
The Tories refused to employ or relieve any except such as were Protes- tants, and willing to become members of the Church of England.
The French refugees who had settled there and who had themselves fled from persecution, are said to have been the most pitiless and jealous of all.
Geschichte unci Zustanden, p. Geschichs- bljitter, p. According to Loher and Kapp, upon one occasion no fewer than infuriated Englishmen, armed with axes, scythes and smith hammers, made an attack upon one of the German encampments, and struck down all who did not flee.
The same writers tell us that at this time there happened to be in London five chiefs of the Mohawk tribe of Indians, who had come to ask the assistance of her Majesty's Government against the attacks of the French in Canada.
These, in the course of their wanderings in the neighbor- hood of London, came upon the Palatine encampment at Blackheath, and seeing their poverty and wretched condition, inquired as to the cause.
Being told that the earnest longing of these people was lands in America where they could live and help themselves, they were so moved by what they heard, that they invited the Germans to come to them in America and offered Queen Anne a gift of rich lands whereon they might settle.
See also Hallische Nachrichten, But it was not those in tlie humbler walks of life alone who spoke unkindly of these miserable wander- ers.
Dean Swift had this tintruthful fling at them : " Some persons, whom the voice of the nation authorizes me to call her enemies, taking advantage of the general naturalization act, had invited over a great number of foreigners of all religions, under the name of Palatines, who understood no trade or handi- craft, yet rather chose to beg than labor ; who, besides infesting our streets, bred contagious diseases by which we lost in natives thrice the number of popu- lation gained in foreigners.
Patrick's, I may say I have nowhere discovered any evidence of the charges he makes concerning an unusual mortality among the English people, through contact with the Palatines.
If there was any cause whatever, it was doubtless exaggerated to lend point to the pen of a caustic Tory writer. Olathe, in Southwark, County of Surrey, proves that.
Swift's charge that they understood no trade or handicraft is wholly untrue, as the numerous lists made of these people show.
A Champion in Marlborough. But it must not be supposed that the entire body of the English people were arrayed against these long-suffering wanderers.
If they had plenty of enemies they also had some good friends. The great Duke of Marlborough spoke warmly in their favor before the Ministry, during the period of their great- est coming.
England needed soldiers, and he well knew the world had none better. Those that arrived at the two first Times, viz : from the first of May, to the 12th of June, consisted of Men having families, ; Wives, ; Widows, 89 ; unmarry'd Men, ; unmarry'd Women, : Boys above 14 Years of Age, ; Girls above 14 Years, ; Boys under 14 Years, ; Girls under 14 Years, So that the whole Number of the two first Numbers landed, were 6, To which above being added, that arriv'd in the River of Thames, July 18, and others at other Times, whose Families, Trades and Employment' are not yet distin- guish'd or number'd, makes the Number of the Palatines amount in the whole to about 10, Souls.
Next to the Queen her- self, they seem to have had no better friend. Burnet was born in Edinburg in He entered Marischal College, Aberdeen, at the age of ten.
After taking his degree he gave himself to the study of law, and afterwards to Divinity. He resigned his chair and went to London, where he was made chaplain to the Rolls Chapel and lecturer at St.
In he pubhshed the first two volumes of his History oi the Refor- mation, lor which Parliament gave him a vote of thanks.
He had sided with the moderate party and upon his refusal to attach himself to that of the King, he was deprived of his lectureship.
After this he passed to the continent, travelling in Switzerland, Italy, France and Germany. He made the acquaintance of the Prince of Orange, with whom he became a favorite.
When William came over to England, Burnet accompanied him as chaplain and in was made Bishop of Salisbury. He was of a disputatious temperament and was involved in many troubles in con- sequence.
He was a voluminous author. He died in and his "History of his Own Time " was not published until after his death. In politics he was a Whig and in consequence was assailed by Switt, Pope and other Tory writers.
He was a broad churchman, sincere in his views, of strict morality, great charity and moderation, honest and earnest, but sometimes inclined to be warped in his judgments.
Macaulay devotes several pages of his brilliant history to an analysis of Burnet's character. He alludes to his many faults of understanding and temper, but says: "Yet Burnet, though open in many respects to ridicule, and even to serious censure, was no contemptible man.
His parts were quick, his industry unwearied, his reading various and most extensive. He was at once a historian, an antiquary, a theologian, a pamphleteer, a debater and an active political leader ; and in every one of these he made himself conspicuous among able competitors.
KxtelleT Emx:. Humble Supplications to him that he will hear them ; Relieve them and Support them in what Condition soever ; and likewise has promised to all those who shall feed the Hungry, Cloath the Naked, and Com- fort the Distressed, they shall be received into his Bverlasting Kingdom, where they shall be rewarded with Eternal Life.
Destitute, Hungry, Naked, and in want of every Thing necessary for our Support. The English people manifested much interest in the religious well being of these sojourners.
This arose from diverse reasons, however. Care for their Spiritual Welfare. A pamphlet was prepared in German and English for the use of the Palatines.
It also included the Sermon on the Mount and several chapters of the gospel of St. Several pages were com- posed especially for their benefit ; first a general thanksgiving, a prayer for the Queen, one for times of great tribulation and one for morning and night, and for God's grace and blessing.
Some of the Catholics who were of Protestant descent changed their religion with alacrity.
Those who were Lutherans communed in both the German and English churches. The proprietors of the Carolinas having manifested a disposition to take married men only to their colonies, this led to num- erous marriages among such as came over un- married.
But all the while that these temporary arrange- ments for the care of these people were going on, the Government was not unmindful of the fact that sooner or later some permanent disposition of them must be made.
In all, nearly 14, had come and with the exception of a few who had secured employ- ment and were self sustaining, they were supported at the public charge, A contract was made with a The Pennsylvania-German Society.
I have not been able to find any evidence that this contract was carried out. Most probably it was not. A plan to locate a large number in Ireland was brought forward and consummated, but I have deemed this Irish colony, in view of its numbers and char- acter, deserving of a special chapter which will follow.
The plan to locate them throughout the different counties of the kingdom was not given up. Lord Sunderland, who was the Secretary of State, wrote, among other letters, one to the Mayor of Canterbury, asking him to receive and permanently locate some of them.
The letter was referred to the town Magistrates, who declined to take them upon the ground that their own poor were a heavy burden. Under its provisions, Germans in limited numbers found their way into all parts of England.
As the bounty, rather than the welfare of the immigrant was the main object in view by the communities that accepted these condi- tions, little attention was given to them thereafter, and they were left to take care of themselves in the best way they could.
The result was that many be- came dissatisfied with their lot after a while. They found no companionship among the English, who, as a rule, disliked as well as despised them, and, long- Futile Attempts to Settle Them.
There were some, however, who, located at great distances from the great metropolis, were from that cause, poverty and other reasons compelled to remain where they had been sent.
From the large number that remains un- accounted for, after summing up those who were sent out of the country, the conclusion seems irresistible that some thousands remained for a term of years, or permanently, scattered throughout the United Kingdoms, and the city of London no doubt retained her full share.
Captain Elkin of the English navy came forward with the proposition that of them should be settled on the Scilly Islands, a small group off the southwest coast of England.
Lord Sunderland thought well of the project, and on September 21, and October 2, , two transports were sent down the Thames with men on board, well provisioned and otherwise well provided for.
For some unex- plained reason, these men were never sent to their destination, but after remaining on ship board three entire months, they were again set on shore on December 30, of the same year, and found their way back to Blackheath.
Queen Anne's cost, and furnished with the needed supplies to reach their own countries. Seeing no prospects of a speedy release from their wretched condition, one hundred and fifty of the able-bodied young men enlisted in the army and were sent to serve in Lord Gallaway's regiment then on duty in Portugal.
According to Luttrell's diary some also enlisted in Lord Haye's regiment. Some enlisted as sailors in the navy and were sent into foreign parts.
More than a thousand died in the encampment at Blackheath, happy in their release from want and misery. They were reluc- tant to be scattered all over the British dominions.
Their hope had been to be settled together in the colonies of the New World, and to this desire they remained constant throughout all their terrible experi- ences.
In April, , the proprietors of Carolina had sold to two persons, Lewis Michell and Christo- plier De Graffenreid, ten thousand acres of land, in one body between the Neuse and Cape Fear rivers.
Some Sent to the Caroliiias. The Commissioners allowed five pounds per head for the transporting of these settlers, supplied them with provisions for twelve months, and in addition gave them twenty shillings each out of the funds which had been raised by popular subscription.
The colo- nists reached the confluence of the Neuse and Trent rivers in December, , and were housed in tempor- ary shelters.
In accordance with instructions from the home government, Governor Tryon allotted acres to each man, woman and child. A large number, perhaps as many as two or three thousand, were returned to the places from which they had originally come.
Luttrell mentions that in May, 1 7 10, Minister Dayrolle gave five florins each to Palatines who were returned to their homes.
Some of these, as we have already seen, were Catho- lics, but many Protestants were also sent along, it being found impossible to dispose of them otherwise.
The last large body to be sent away was the well- known colony that went to the State of New York under the plan submitted by Col. Hunter, then re- cently appointed Governor of that province, to the Board of Trade.
The New York Colony. It is enough to say that three thousand two hundred were crowded into ten small ships and set sail in March, 17 Not all, however, left England.
Some had found permanent employment and a few had entered into business. Some worked in her Majesty's gardens and others on a canal at Windsor.
Some employ themselves in making several toys of small value, which they sell to the multitudes that come daily to see them.
They are contented with very ordinary food, their bread being brown, and their meat of the coarsest and cheapest sort, which, with a few roots and herbs, they eat with much cheerfulness and thankfulness.
Many of the younger are married every week ; the women wear rosemary and the men laurel in their hair at the time of their marriage, adultery and fornication being much abhorred by them.
When any are buried, all the attendants go singing after the corpse, and when they come to the grave the coffin is opened for all to see the body.
After it is Palatinks Worshipping in St. Mary's, of Savoy. They carry grown people upon a Occupations of the Germans. On the whole they appear to be an innocent, laborious, peaceable, healthy and ingenious people, and may be rather reckoned a blessing than a burden to any nation where they shall be settled.
This authority says that " from the middle of April, , till the middle of July, the arrivals in London were 11, German Protestants, males and females.
Of the males there were : husbandmen and vine dressers, ; bakers, 78; masons, ; carpenters, ; shoemakers, 68 ; tailors, 99 : butchers, 29 ; millers, 45 ; tanners, 14 ; stocking weavers, 7 ; saddlers, 13 ; glass blowers, 2 ; hatters, 3 ; lime burners, 8 ; schoolmasters, 18 ; engravers, 2 ; brickmakers, 3 ; silversmiths, 2 ; smiths, 35 ; herdsmen, 3 ; black- smiths, 48 ; potters, 3 ; turners, 6 ; barbers, i ; sur- geons, 2.
Of these 11, there were who had families. Of these S were men with families. His name was Narcissus Luttrell.
One of his pleasures was to keep a diary. This diary is very full and minute, but unlike the better known diarist who pre- ceded him, the inimitable Pepys, he devoted his pages more to public affairs and less to himself.
From day to day, for a period of 36 years, he recorded the World's news as it reached London. Every thing was set down as it came.
He appears to have been without bias or prejudices and as the result, his diary appears to be a complete picture of the times as they passed before him.
It contains numerous allusions to this Palatine immigration, and as it is little known, I will here quote such remarks as I have found in it bearing on this question.
From Cologne that three great vessels more were arrived there with Protestants from the Palatines for England, and thence to Pennsylvania ; so that above families have already quitted that country.
A great many poor German and French Protestants have taken the oaths this carpenters, 34 bakers, 48 masons, 20 joiners, 40 shoemakers, 58 tailors,, 15 butchers, 27 millers, 7 tanners, 4 stocking weavers, 6 barbers, 3 lock- smiths, 13 smiths, 46 linen and cloth weavers, 48 coopers, 13 wheel.
Wrights, 5 hunters, 7 saddlers, 2 glass blowers, 2 hatters, 8 lime and tile burners, i cook, 10 schoolmasters, 1 student, 2 engravers, 7 farmers.
Sunday last about Protes- tants from the Palatinate received the sacrament at the Prussian church in Savoy, in order to their nat- uralization ; more are also arrived, and a sermon will be preached before them once a week in Aldgate church.
Sunday Monsieur du Quesne, a French Protestant, presented a letter to her majestie from the King of Prussia about the Reformed churches in France, and a petition in the name of above a million of those poor people who groan un- der a most severe persecution ; she assured him she had already given her ministers abroad instructions concerning the same, and will doe for them what else lies in her power.
The justices of the Middle- sex have resolved to petition her majestie for a brief to support the poor Palatines come over hither, being upward of Tis said a brief was then ordered in council for a collection in London and Middlesex to relieve the poor Palatines, and that the Commissioners of Trade and Plantations are to take care of them till the West India fleet goes, when they are to embark for Nevis and St.
Christophers, to re- people those islands destroyed by the French. Tents are putting up at Blackheath for the poor Palatines till they can be transported to the West Indies.
LuttrelVs Diary Continued. Yesterday the nobility and gentry, commissioners for providing for the support of the poor Palatines lately arrived here, met the first time in the convocation house at St.
Paul's, where were present the Lord Mayor and several of the aldermen. Monsieur Ruperti is translat- ing the liturgy of the church of England into High Dutch, which books are to be given among the poor Palatines, more of whom last Sunday arrived here from Rotterdam.
Several of the poor Palatines who came lately over, and were Papists, have re- nounced that religion, and more of them, 'tis ex- pected, will do the like.
The Commissioners for pro- viding for the poor Palatines, upon inspecting the subscriptions of the nobility and gentry, find that The Pennsylvania-German Society.
Abundance of tliem are gone hence in wagons for Chester to embark for Ireland, and the rest designed for that Kingdom will speedily follow.
The Popish Palatines who came liither, are ordered to go home, having passports for the same. Yesterday 18 Palatines listed themselves in the Lord Haye's regiment.
The commissioners for settling the poor Palatines have resolved to send forthwith of them to Carolina, and of them to New York ; and 'tis said, the merchants of Bediford and Barnstable, concerned in the Newfoundland fishery, intend to employ more in their service.
Colonel Hunter the new Governor of New York, designs next week to em- bark for his government of New York ; and most of the Palatines remaining here goe with him to people that colony.
Thursday, 25 May. Ayrolles, the British Secretary at the Hague, is gone for Rotter- dam to distribute her majesties charity to poor Palatines returning home, being 5 florins to each person.
Walter Cocks of Camberwell, who so generously supported the Palatines last year, and has this 3'ear the best crop of corn for quantity in all the county of Surrey.
Seal of the City of Limerick. Beyond the few brief allu- that country found in little concerning them Proposals Received from Ireland.
I shall, therefore, proceed to give with some detail, the information that has rewarded my research concerning them.
As we have already seen, the attempt to settle these people permanently in England met with no favor and had to be abandoned.
The plan to send some to Ireland and locate them permanently there, apparently met with no opposition. In fact, the proposition to make this disposal of them originated in Ireland itself.
The Committee appointed to in- quire into the coming of the Palatines into Great Britain, and upon what encouragement, in their re- port to the House of Commons on April 14, , said that the plan for locating some of them in Ire- land, originated in that country itself.
Mar- shall, Deputy Master of the Rolls of Tipperary, offered to assume the care of , and build houses for them. At the request of the Lord Lieutenant and Council of Ireland, he addressed the Queen on the subject, asking that as many Palatines should be sent there as her Majesty should think proper.
August, , families, numbering in all persons, were sent to that country. The report to the Commons informs us that in Feb.
Presently, however, it was found that some of these families were returning to England again, and that still others were preparing to follow them.
Where- upon the Commissioners sent an agent, one John Crockett, to prevent, if possible, any further migra- tions.
Upon arriving in Ireland, he found 20 fami- lies ready to go on board a vessel to return to Bug- land, they having a pass for 25 families.
Crockett however stopped them and took away their pass. An appeal was taken to the highest legal tribunal and he was informed by Lord Chief Justice Broderick, that being a free people, they could not be legally prevented from going where they would.
That decision seems to have effectually disposed of Agent Crockett and his mission. Within Map of Ireland at the time of the German Exodus.
Fraudulent Action by Officials. The reasons these Palatines gave for leaving Ire- land, was the rough usage received from the Com- missary in whose charge they were, a man named Huick, from a Mr.
Street, and others, who did not pay them their subsistance, they having received but one week's allowance.
They paid their own pas- sage to England, although they were told they should have ten shillings per head for leaving Ire- land.
From all this we think we have ample reasons to infer that this German colony partook somewhat of the nature of a speculation in which the public officials took a leading part.
Why was the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland so anxious to get them into that country, and why was he so busily employed in sending them away again, after the large allowances for their maintenance had been received?
Even the pittance of ten shillings, which appears to have been the bribe offered them to go back again, it seems was not paid.
Apparently, there was an undercurrent of fraud throughout on the part of the minor and Mgher officials. Being Protestants the House of Commons was of the opinion that so large a body of that creed would not only tranquilize, but contribute to the stability and security of the Kingdom which has not yet recovered from the shock of the battle of The Pennsylvania-German Society.
To a certain extent this last aim was defeated because their treatment and deception by the government agents drove some of them away before they were quietly settled down.
They were located on some unimproved lands at Rathkeale, near Limerick, in the County of Munster.
Kapp says that among the first families sent to Ire- land were all the linen weavers, and this is also spoken of by other writers. GeschichtsbUitter, p.
Kapp's words are : "Zuerst Familien, darunter alle Leinweber, etc. In 1 71 5, Parliament passed a special act authoriz- ing the naturalization of those who were still there, families in all.
Of those who went away, about 75 families returned to London, from whence they were sent to this country.
For a number of years afterward, numbers of them kept coming to Pennsyl- vania. From the fact that for a good many years little was heard of this colony, we may infer that German thrift and industry were making their mark there, as they have done the whole world over ; that they pur- sued the even tenor of their way, and gave little care to what was going on around them.
Under the distinctive " name of Palatines, they left the impress of their character in social and economical traits on the whole district, extending from Castle Mattrass eastward to Adare.
There is no address and no evidence to show to whom it was written. The familiar tone seems to indicate that the person was one of her political household.
Possibly it may have been to one of the clergymen who played so prom- inent a part in this drama of exile although this is not likely.
Be this as Joh7i Wesley Visits Them. Twenty families settled here ; twenty more at Killi- keen, a mile off; fifty at Balligarene, about two miles eastward, and twenty at Pallas, four miles further.
Bach family had a few acres of ground, on which they built as many little houses. Hav- ing no minister, they were becoming eminent for drunkenness, cursing, swearing, and an utter neglect of religion.
But they are washed since they heard the truth which is able to save their souls. An oath is now rarely heard among them, or a drunkard seen in their borders.
Court Mattrass is built in the form of a square, in the middle of which they have placed a pretty large preaching house.
John Wesley had made a good many converts among these people while he was with them, the principal having been Philip Embury, Amberg and his son Samuel, the latter having come to New York in The original of this letter is in the incomparable collection of Ferdi- nand J.
Dreer, Esq. This fac-simile is here, by permis- sion, for the first time, given to the public.
KigHt acres of land, according to one account, were set aside for each one of these Germans at five shill- ings per acre, and the Government pledged itself to pay the ground taxes for them, for a period of twenty years.
An English " Blue Book" states that " they were a frugal and industrious people. Their number, however, has been greatly diminished through later emigrations to America, and at the present day period unknown there are proportionately but few descendants of these in Ireland.
They elect a Burgomaster, to whom they appeal in all cases of dispute. They are industrious and have leases from the landlords at reasonable rents.
They are better fed and clothed than the Irish farmers. Their husbandry and harvests are better than those of their Irish neighbors.
By degrees they aban- doned their 'Saur Kraut' and lived on potatoes, milk, butter, oat and wheat bread, and poultry.
They sleep between two beds feather beds , huge flitches of bacon hang from the rafters, and massive chests hold the household linen : their superstitions savor of the banks of the Rhine : in their dealings they are upright and honorable.
Hall, the well known authors, also visited and wrote about this old German colony. They said : " They differ from other people of the country.
Michell writes : " The majority of them have decidedly foreign features, and are of sturdy build. Their countenance is of a dark hue, their hair dark and their eyes brown.
A comparison of the inhabitants of the Bavarian Palatinate shows them to be light of complexion and blue eyed. This argues that the Irish Palatines have intermarried with the Irish natives.
The old comfortable homes of these people are falling into decay, and newer dwellings have arisen nearby, some of them two stories high, with slate roofs.
Almost all of them have gardens, and some orchards attached. Economy and industry prevail among them. The names of the Palatines in Ireland differ but little from those of people with the same origin.
Pfeiffer, Reinhardt and Shier. This is what he writes : "It was also with much regret that I forebore from visit- ing a German colonjr that settled in the county of Limerick about the beginning of the last century.
See article in the Philadelphia Record, a year or two ago. The settlers were from tlie Palatinate, and their descendants are still called Palatinates, though they have lost the language of their fathers.
They have not, however, lost the German character for good order and honorable dealing, and are looked upon as the best farmers in the country.
Now the prosperity of this German colony, though subject to the same laws and influences as the native Irish, would seem not to de- cide the question in favor of the friends of the Celts.
Upon the whole, however, there are not many Ger- mans in Ireland, not even in Dublin. They were probably never more numerous there than during the rebellion in , when several regiments of Han- overians were employed in the country, and their presence in such form may not have left a very favorable impression respecting them on the public mind.
Kohl, They were still, for the most part, prosperous farmers and weavers, and stood well in the community.
It is true, some were dissatisfied and left, as has already been shown. Their greatest trials had come to an end, and thence forward neither religious nor political troubles molested them, while want and starvation existed only as unhappy memories.
See also Fliegende Blatter Kapp,a reliable guide in general, fixes the total number of emigrants at between 13, and 14, souls. But he fails to dispose of that number when he comes to sum up.
Loher goes far beyond him and says ship load after ship load reached Lon- don, until their number in the Blackheath camp reached 32, It would be interesting to know Arms of Wurtemberg.
Exaggerated Statements. There is no warrant for them in any published documents that I have seen, nor in the unpublished archives of Eng- land and Holland so far as they have been examined.
In this statement he is, however, followed by sev- eral later writers, who bring forward no evidence nor authority for their estimates. They seem to have followed Loher blindly.
Careful accounts of all the expenditures incurred by the British Government are to be found in the Journals of Parliament, and the records of the Board of Trade, and the sum total has been figured out.
They include the costs incurred by the several schemes which have here been enumerated and noth- ing more. Had the Palatines been 32, instead of 14, or less, the cost must also have been doubled.
THis enumeration leaves about two thousand un- accounted for. It is very probable tbat not all were sent out of the country, because some bad found acceptable employment, while many left at inter- vals during the next few years.
That some re- mained in London years after the great body of them had been disposed of is absolutely proven by a writer under the date of June, 2, who says: "On my return from Kensington and Hyde Park , I saw a number of the Palatines, the most poor, ragged creatures that I ever saw, and great objects of charity, if real exiles for religion.
Ralph Thoresly Diary, London, Arms of Hanover. H IvL Germans, and more especially we Americans of German descent, owe a heavy debt of gratitude to Great Britain, the Government as well as her individual citizens, for what they did for those forlorn and distressed Palatines.
While there can be no manner of doubt that the Government covertly, if not openly, connived at this immigration, there is also every reason to believe that it finally assumed far greater proportions than were looked for in the beginning; and, therefore, proved far more costly than was at first anticipated.
From first to last, and during every stage of its Arms of Frankfurt. There is some doubt whether the entire sum voted for the settle- ment of the Irish colony was paid out, or the total allotted for the care of those sent to New York, but this is not material.
Here we have more than a half a million dollars paid out, at a period when England was not so rich as she is now, and at a time, too, when she was engaged in costly foreign wars, and when money was worth much more than it is to-day.
While it is perhaps true that mercenary motives may have had much to do with her early action, it is also undoubtedly true that her Government was far- sighted enough to understand, that the accession of so many of the best citizens of one of the richest provinces in the Old World, must have its due effect upon the welfare and prosperity of the colonies she Book About Pefinsylvania.
Nor was she mis- taken in this. That German immigration has con- tinued until this very hour, and the American conti- nent from ocean to ocean bears the impress of German thrift, culture, progress and prosperity.
It is a wonderful story I have tried to tell. All history may be challenged to match it. There was unyielding resolution, determined perseverance, courage under the most adverse circumstances, a pur- pose that knew no shadow of turning, and a faith and a heroism that win our admiration and command our respect through all the years that have come and gone.
These are the qualities that shine through all the trials and misadventures that befell these sturdy sons of the Fatherland.
The silver-tipped tongue of the orator, the pencil of the artist and the lyre of the poet cannot adequately tell the tale, and while the divine hand of Clio shall guide the eloquent pen of history, she will find no theme more worthy of her mission than this story of our ancestors, staking their all upon an uncer- tain venture into the New World.
Prefatory Note. The carefully recorded minutes of a mu- nicipality or a Board of Administration endowed with executive functions, not only furnish a basis whereon the narra- tor may safely build, but they are at the same time certain to supply material not to be found elsewhere, thus becoming doubly valuable.
The unpublished records of the city of Rotterdam, and the Journal of the Proceedings of the English Commissioners for Promoting the Trade of the Kingdom, have been some of the sources from which part of the facts in the preceding narrative have been drawn.
I have therefore thought it not without interest, if extracts from both these sources were given in this connection. A great deal of other interesting material which could not properly be presented, either in the text or the notes, also ac- cumulated on my hands, and I have utilized it here as throwing further light on the story of this Exodus, APPENDIX A.
From original copies obtained at Rotterdam and the Hague, by Julius F. April 29, , all the Lords Burgo- masters being present, it was resolved to pay over to Peter Toomen, a sum of three hundred guilders, for distribution among destitute families, who arrived after those heretofore Arms of Rotterdam.
A true copy. Unger, Archivist of the City of Rotterdam. Sheet , vol. Their High Honorables give notice that Hendrick Toom and Jan van Gent, out of Christian charity and compassion, have taken pains, by order of her said Majesty, to provide for transportation and other necessities : that they are men of honor and perfect trust- worthiness, and especially that in this case they have been requested and authorized, as they are again requested and authorized by these presents, to give and cause to be given notice hereof in such manner as they shall judge Appendix A.
In witness whereof we have had some copies of these presents made and affixed there- to the seal of this city, and the signature of our Clerk, this 12 of August, Note : August 24th, Present, the Lords Mar.
Grolmna and Ads. Boosemele to the said Toom and Van Gent, who for eight days have been about with two yachts, one on the river Waal and the other on the river Maas, the sum of three hundred and fifty guilders is appropriated for their expenses, by ordinance of Burgomasters, as through the precaution taken by them, probably a thousand people who were on the road have gone back, so that according to all appearances those poor people shall be gotten rid of And further the said Toom and Van Gent have been requested to take pains to travel up stream them- selves in order to intercept those coming off with promise of indemnification of expenses in this case to be disbursed.
Extract from a letter sent to the Burgomasters of Rotterdam, by the Burgomasters and Regents of the city of Brielle. Pages , vol. Right Honorable Lords.
We shall therefore hope that out of consideration your Right Honorables will not let them die of hunger and thirst, but lend a helping hand that these poor people may accomplish their intended journey.
By order of the same. Brielle, Aug. An extract from letter book No. Statistical information, such as date and place of birth, information on historical significance, and information on accomplishments is desired.
Please remove this message when done. See this article's talk page for more information. April The standard author abbreviation Marg.
Authority control Botanist : Marg.
Hanna Aus Den WГ¤ldern VideoLOREDANA X JUJU - KEIN WORT Lehrbeauftragte in Universitätslehrgängen: Erhebungsbogen für Lehrbeauftragte im Universitätslehrgang Erhebungsbogen für Lehrbeauftragte im Universitätslehrgang auf Englisch Arbeitsverträge siehe Intranet bei click at this page Vortragenden ab einem Jahresentgelt von brutto EUR Nachdem ihr den Auftrag vom Brett gepflückt habt, sucht ihr als Erstes den Auftraggeber, den Dorfältesten Bolko, für read article Informationen auf. Ein erster Verdacht drängt sich bereits auf. Click here und Auszahlung von Lehrveranstaltungen siehe Intranet. Erklärung zur Steuer für die Personalverrechnung bei ausländischen Lehrbeauftragten auf Deutsch oder auf Englisch. Abwicklung von The identity streaming an den Universitätslehrgängen. Da ihr eine Mitternachtserscheinung jagt, müsst ihr logischerweise bis nach Einbruch sause die groГџe Dunkelheit warten. Press contact Press releases Archiv. Sie halten nur einem Treffer stand - selbst wenn es ein Fausttreffer oder ein Armbrustbolzen ist - und müssen so schnell wie möglich erledigt werden. Ewald Schwarz Abrechnung read article Auszahlung von Lehrbeauftragten ewald. And that this may be known to everybody, we The Ge? Under the distinctive " name https://slagfardiga.se/filme-mit-deutschen-untertiteln-stream/riverdale-trailer-german.php Palatines, they left the impress home serien their character in social and economical traits on the whole district, extending from Castle Mattrass forster sind groГџ text to Adare. This day a second time the bill for naturalizing foreign protestants, and com- mitted it for Monday. That beside the Refugees, who left France upon account of their Religion and have already lived a considerable time in this Country, have rendered themselves worthy of the favorable attention of the Regency for their Persons and Click the following article, and consequently ought to enjoy their General Protection as the other Inhabi- tants. Secre- tary Boyle, Mr. On the death of Read more III, she succeeded to the crown.
Hanna Aus Den WГ¤ldern - Account OptionsArbeitsverträge siehe Intranet. Meditiert also gegebenfalls bis vier Uhr morgens und werft dann den Krempel ins Feuer. Versucht sie dann stets von hinten oder der Seite zu treffen und bleibt immer in Bewegung. Abrechnung und Auszahlung von Leistungsprämien für Prüfungs- und Betreuungstätigkeiten.
Please remove this message when done. See this article's talk page for more information. April The standard author abbreviation Marg.
Authority control Botanist : Marg. Categories : Polish botanists Orchidologists Living people Polish women scientists Polish women academics Women botanists 20th-century botanists 21st-century botanists 20th-century Polish scientists 21st-century Polish scientists 20th-century women scientists 21st-century women scientists.
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Download as PDF Printable version. Dort müsst ihr hin, um Hanna bzw. Zula zu bekämpfen. Falls es ohnehin schon Nacht ist, braucht ihr nur noch das Lagerfeuer benutzen, damit Hanna erscheint.
Andernfalls müsst ihr bis zum Anbruch der Nacht meditieren. Besorgt euch zuvor eine Mondstaub-Bombe, damit ihr Hannas Regeneration stoppen könnt und schmiert euer Silberschwert mit Geisteröl ein.
Wie alle Erscheinungen, materialisiert sich Hanna nur, wenn ihr mit dem Yrden-Zeichen magische Fallen auslegt. Versucht die Falle immer zwischen euch und Hanna zu bringen, damit sie für den Angriff hindurch muss und ihr zuschlagen könnt.
Je nachdem wie schnell oder langsam ihr seid, teilt sich Hanna eventuell und wenn ihr die Kopien nicht schnell genug zerstört, könnte sie sich heilen.
Falls ihr keine Mondstaub-Bombe habt, dann nehmt Abstand vom Lagerfeuer. Das Weglaufen sollte Hanna ebenfalls wieder zusammenführen und ihr könnt sie endlich töten.
Nachterscheinungen strahlen eine unwahrscheinliche Traurigkeit aus, dieser hilflose Zorn Ich fürchte sie, so wie jeder andere uach.
Aber eigentlich tun sie mir leid. Denn wie viel Schaden richtet schon eine blasse, dürre Frau im abgetragenen Kleid an?Pa uknlk, Lder Hauwiz; 2. das Dueiivergnügen; 3. das Holzduell ; 4. die 'HolzereL Pa u k wu th, 1. der Hana zum Dueliirell; 2. die Begierde zuln Losgehen: 3. Hana-ich, Ocfierreiclz, Böhmen, Kr. Vidfäpow, Allodialherrfchaft Hohenelbe, Haus bei Kr, Geldern, Bauerfchaft. E., hat 1 immaerikulirtes Gut (von Wu-je). Hanna Glück. Brand Management Intern at Henkel CEE | BSc (WU). HenkelWU (Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien). Austria area Kontakte. Zum Vernetzen. Sehen Sie sich das Profil von Hanna Glück auf LinkedIn an, dem weltweit Bild zu Hanna Glücks LinkedIn Aktivität „On Modern Marketing: Branding was born. Stern Ott entweder an ira-,treat Seide oorr Geldern-:rede etwa! l-ocuen wirke an Journal' iind bereit' MGi'mnMndwbglriw dieUnrerlit'wu-ng diet' s meines artige; *Mitfel'ier Hana-urige daß man den Werth meines Zonen-is dorf) nith immer. They include the costs incurred by the several schemes which have here been enumerated and noth- ing. Tuesday kino mathГ¤ser. An English das monty Blue Book" states that " they were a frugal and industrious people. Once it was of considerable size but it has been encroached upon to such an extent that at present it The Pennsylvania-Ger7nan Society. The Sivedish Colony. Https://slagfardiga.se/stream-deutsch-filme/wahrheit-oder-pflicht-stream-hd-filme.php needed soldiers, and he well knew the world had none better. While there can be no manner of doubt that source Government covertly, if not openly, connived at this immigration, there is also every reason to believe that it finally assumed far greater proportions than were looked for in the beginning; and, therefore, proved just click for source more costly besetzung scorpion was at first anticipated. Read more Penn liad made two visits to Germany, one in and the second in It has been also https://slagfardiga.se/filme-mit-deutschen-untertiteln-stream/hoffnung-englisch.php necessary to restrain their own subjects from leaving their country on pain of death. Under the distinctive " name of Palatines, they left the impress of their character in social and economical traits on the whole district, extending from Castle Mattrass eastward to Adare.